Text from the book
Here was an oaken sill, cut long ago
and sanded clean and bedded true. Foursquare
1085 the doorjambs and the shining doors were set
by the careful builder. Penelope untied the strap
around the curving handle, pushed her hook
into the slit, aimed at the bolts inside,
and shot them back. Then came a rasping sound
1090 as those bright doors the key had sprung gave way—
a bellow like a bull’s vaunt in a meadow--
followed by her light footfall entering
over the plank floor. Herb-scented robes
lay there in chests, but the lady’s milk-white arms
1095 went up to lift the bow down from a peg
in its own polished bow case.
sank down, holding the weapon on her knees,
and drew her husband’s great bow out, and sobbed
and bit her lip and let the salt tears flow.
1100 Then back she went to face the crowded hall
tremendous bow in hand, and on her shoulder hung
the quiver spiked with coughing death. Behind, her
maids bore a basket full of ax heads, bronze
and iron implements for the master’s game.
1105 Thus in her beauty she approached the suitors,
and near a pillar of the solid roof
she paused, her shining veil across her cheeks,
her maids on either hand and still,
then spoke to the banqueters:
“My lords, hear me:
1110 suitors indeed, you recommended this house
to feast and drink in, day and night, my husband
being long gone, long out of mind. You found
no justification for yourselves—none
except your lust to marry me. Stand up,then:
1115 we now declare a contest for that prize.
Here is my lord Odysseus’ hunting bow.
Bend and string it if you can. Who sends an arrow
through iron ax-helve sockets, twelve in line?
I join my life with his, and leave this place, my home,
1120 my rich and beautiful bridal house, forever
to be remembered, though I dream it only.” . . .
Two men had meanwhile left the hall:
swineherd and cowherd, in companionship,
one downcast as the other. But Odysseus
1125 followed them outdoors, outside the court,
and coming up said gently:
and you, too, swineherd, I could say a thing to you,
or should I keep it dark?
No, no; speak,
my heart tells me. Would you be men enough
1130 to stand by Odysseus if he came back?
Suppose he dropped out of a clear sky, as I did?
Suppose some god should bring him?
Would you bear arms for him, or for the suitors?”
The cowherd said:
“Ah, let the master come!
1135 Father Zeus, grant our old wish! Some courier
guide him back! Then judge what stuff is in me
and how I manage arms!”
fell to praying all heaven for his return,
so that Odysseus, sure at least of these,
1140 “I am at home, for I am he.
I bore adversities, but in the twentieth year
I am ashore in my own land. I find
the two of you, alone among my people,
longed for my coming. Prayers I never heard
1145 except your own that I might come again.
So now what is in store for you I’ll tell you:
If Zeus brings down the suitors by my hand
I promise marriages to both, and cattle,
and houses built near mine. And you shall be
1150 brothers-in-arms of my Telemachus.
Here, let me show you something else, a sign
that I am he, that you can trust me, look:
this old scar from the tusk wound that I got
boar hunting on Parnassus—. . .”
Shifting his rags
1155 he bared the long gash. Both men looked, and knew
and threw their arms around the old soldier, weeping,
kissing his head and shoulders. He as well
took each man’s head and hands to kiss, then said--
to cut it short, else they might weep till dark--
1160 “Break off, no more of this.
Anyone at the door could see and tell them.
Drift back in, but separately at intervals
Now listen to your orders:
when the time comes, those gentlemen, to a man,
1165 will be dead against giving me bow or quiver.
Defy them. Eumaeus, bring the bow
and put it in my hands there at the door.
Tell the women to lock their own door tight.
Tell them if someone hears the shock of arms
1170 or groans of men, in hall or court, not one
must show her face, but keep still at her weaving.
Philoeteus, run to the outer gate and lock it.
Throw the crossbar and lash it.”
And Odysseus took his time,
1175 turning the bow, tapping it, every inch,
for borings that termites might have made
while the master of the weapon was abroad.
The suitors were now watching him, and some
jested among themselves:
“A bow lover!”
“Dealer in old bows!”
1180 “Maybe he has one like it
“Or has an itch to make one for himself.”
“See how he handles it, the sly old buzzard!”
And one disdainful suitor added this:
“May his fortune grow an inch for every inch he bends it!”
1185 But the man skilled in all ways of contending,
satisfied by the great bow’s look and heft,
like a musician, like a harper, when
with quiet hand upon his instrument
he draws between his thumb and forefinger
1190 a sweet new string upon a peg: so effortlessly
Odysseus in one motion strung the bow.
Then slid his right hand down the cord and plucked it,
so the taut gut vibrating hummed and sang
a swallow’s note.
In the hushed hall it smote the suitors
1195 and all their faces changed. Then Zeus thundered
overhead, one loud crack for a sign.
And Odysseus laughed within him that the son
of crooked-minded Cronus had flung that omen down.
He picked one ready arrow from his table
1200 where it lay bare: the rest were waiting still
in the quiver for the young men’s turn to come.
He nocked it, let it rest across the handgrip,
and drew the string and grooved butt of the arrow,
aiming from where he sat upon the stool.
1205 arrow from twanging bow clean as a whistle
through every socket ring, and grazed not one,
to thud with heavy brazen head beyond.
“Telemachus, the stranger
you welcomed in your hall has not disgraced you.
1210 I did not miss, neither did I take all day
stringing the bow. My hand and eye are sound,
not so contemptible as the young men say.
The hour has come to cook their lordships’ mutton--
supper by daylight. Other amusements later,
1215 with song and harping that adorn a feast.”
He dropped his eyes and nodded, and the prince
Telemachus, true son of King Odysseus,
belted his sword on, clapped hand to his spear,
and with a clink and glitter of keen bronze
1220 stood by his chair, in the forefront near his father.
Penelope has very pale arms.
Possibly foreshadowing the death of the suitors.
Penelope is either wearing a veil or she is blushing.
Odysseus and the two herdsmen would cry until nightfall.
The weapons clashing.
A sly old buzzard is a cantankerous person having or showing cunning and a decietful nature.
The suitors are making fun of him because he looks poor. They think he would never be able to bend it and that if he could even bend it an inch that they hope his fortune grows with it. They think it is obvious he will not bend it.
The old beggar picked up the bow and held it in ready postion and when pulling back the string, did it so gracefully as an experienced bowsman would.
When Odysseus plucked the string as one would a guitar string and it reverberated a humming similar to the note a swallow would sing.
Cronus is insane.
The arrow shot through cleanly, true to its target, hitting it right on the mark.
Telemachus puts on his sword, puts his hand on his spear in ready position for combat, and stands up next to his father causing his armor to shift and make sounds as metal would when hitting against itself.
Summary of Text
First, Penelope is getting out the bow and showing it to the suitors telling them that whoever can string it, as her husband Odysseus used to, that she would marry them. While all of the suitors are attempting to bend the bow two herdsmen head outside to mourn the loss of their king only to stumble upon aforementioned missing king. He informs them of a plan of his to rid his castle of the suitors for good. They then willingly agree to help their king for they are loyal. Next, the herdsmen bar all the exits so there is no way for the suitors to escape. The herdsmen then enter the room with the suitors again at intervals so as not to seem suspicious. They give the bow to Odysseus, the beggar, and then proceed to taking the women out of the room, telling them to stay inside their rooms and not leave them no matter what. Then, Odysseus first slowly and delicately examines the bow recieving jests from the suitors. Next, he swiftly strings the bow, stunning the suitors into silence. Lastly, a shock of thunder is heard which is an omen from Zeus telling Odysseus to proceed with his plan. Odysseus then shoots an arrow and is joined by his son to rid the castle of the suitors.
Illustrations For The Text
Odysseus, The Swinherd, and the Cowherd: crying outside the court.
That Were Drawn
Odysseus admiring the bow, and checking it for any imperfections.
By Ramela Harmon
Odysseus and his son.